The International Arab Journal of Information Technology (IAJIT)


MCA-MAC: Modified Cooperative Access MAC Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks

Throughput, energy efficiency and average packet delivery delay are some of the most crucial metrics that should be considered in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). This paper proposes a modified Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol for WSNs, called (MCA-MAC). MCA-MAC aims to improve the previous metrics and thus the overall performance of WSNs through using cooperative communication. It enables source nodes from using intermediate nodes as relays to send their data through them to the access point. MCA-MAC protocol is also acting as a cross layer protocol where the best end-to-end path between the source and destination is found through an efficient algorithm. Mathematical analysis demonstrates that MCA- MAC protocol can determine the optimal relay node that has the minimum transmission time for the given source-destination pair. Using Multi-Paradigm Programming Language (MATLAB) simulation environment, this paper estimates MCA-MAC protocol performance in terms of system throughput, energy efficiency and delay. The results show that MCA-MAC protocol outperforms the existing scheme called Throughput and Energy aware Cooperative MAC protocol (TEC-MAC) protocol under ideal and dynamic channel conditions. Under ideal conditions, MCA-MAC protocol achieved throughput, and energy efficiency improvements of 12%, and 50% respectively, more than TEC-MAC protocol. While the packet delay through using MCA-MAC has been decreased by about 48% less than TEC-MAC protocol.

[1] Bassily R. and Ulukus S., “Deaf Cooperation and Relay Selection Strategies for Secure Communication in Multiple Relay Networks,” IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, vol. 61, no. 6, pp. 1544-1554, 2013.

[2] Cicioğlu M., Bayrakdar M., and Çalhan A., “Performance Analysis of a New MAC Protocol for Wireless Cognitive Radio Networks,” Wireless Personal Communications, vol. 108, no. 1, pp. 67-86, 2019.

[3] Bayrakdar M., “Cooperative Communication Based Access Technique for Sensor Networks,” International Journal of Electronics, vol. 107, no. 2, pp. 212-225, 2020.

[4] Bayrakdar M., “Employing Sensor Network Based Opportunistic Spectrum Utilization for Agricultural Monitoring,” Sustainable Computing: Informatics and Systems, vol. 27, pp. 100404, 2020.

[5] Bayrakdar M., “Energy-Efficient Technique for Monitoring of Agricultural Areas with Terrestrial Wireless Sensor Networks,” Journal of Circuits, Systems and Computers, vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 1-17, 2019.

[6] Bayrakdar M., “Exploiting Cognitive Wireless Nodes for Priority‐Based Data Communication in Terrestrial Sensor Networks,” Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute Journal, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 36-45, 2020.

[7] Bianchi G., “Performance Analysis of the IEEE 802.11 Distributed Coordination Function,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 535-547, 2000.

[8] Cheng C. and Tse C., “A Delay-Aware Network Structure for Wireless Sensor Networks with Consecutive Data Collection Processes,” IEEE Sensors Journal, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 2413-2422, 2013.

[9] Gogate U. and Bakal J., “Healthcare Monitoring System Based on Wireless Sensor Network for Cardiac Patients,” Biomedical and Pharmacology Journal, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 1681-1688, 2018.

[10] He X. and Li F., “Throughput and Energy Efficiency Comparison of One-Hop, Two-Hop, Virtual Relay and Cooperative Retransmission Schemes,” in Proceedings of European Wireless Conference, Lucca, pp. 580-587, 2010.

[11] Hossam A., Eldien A., Abdel-Kader S., and El Kader H., “TEC-MAC: Throughput and Energy aware Cooperative MAC Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks,” International Journal of Computer Science and Applications, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 55-63 2015.

[12] IEEE 802.11b-1999-IEEE Standard for Information Technology-Telecommunications and information exchange between systems- Local and Metropolitan networks-Specific requirements-Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) specifications: Higher Speed Physical Layer (PHY) Extension in the 2.4 GHz band, 1999.html, Last Visited, 2020.

[13] Liu K., Wu S., Huang B., Liu F., and Xu Z., “A Power-Optimized Cooperative MAC Protocol for Lifetime Extension in Wireless Sensor Networks,” Sensors, vol. 16, no. 10, pp. 1630, 2016.

[14] Mainaud B., Gauthier V., and Afifi H., “Cooperative Communication for Wireless Sensors Network : A Mac Protocol Solution Cooperative Communication for Wireless Sensors Network : A Mac Protocol Solution WSC-MAC : A Cooperative Mac Protocol for Wireless Sensors Network,” in Proceedings of 1st IFIP Wireless Days, Dubai, pp. 1-5, 2008.

[15] Nacef A., Senouci S., Ghamri-Doudane Y., and Beylot A., “COSMIC: A Cooperative MAC Protocol for WSN with Minimal Control Messages,” in Proceedings of 4th IFIP International Conference on New Technologies, Mobility and Security, Paris, pp. 1-5, 2011.

[16] Oralhan Z., Oralhan B., and Yiğit Y., “Smart City Application: Internet of Things (IoT) Technologies Based Smart Waste Collection Using Data Mining Approach and Ant Colony Optimization,” The International Arab Journal of Information Technology, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 423- 427, 2017.

[17] Sayed S. and Yang Y., “BTAC: A Busy Tone Based Cooperative Mac Protocol for Wireless Local Area Networks,” in Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on Communications and Networking in China, Hangzhou, pp. 403- 409, 2008.

[18] Salem T., Abdel-Mageid S., Abdel-Kader S., and Zaki M., “ICSSSS: An Intelligent Channel Selection Scheme for Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks Using A Self Organized Map Followed By Simple Segregation,” Pervasive and Mobile Computing, vol. 39, pp. 195-213, 2017.

[19] Wang D., Liu J., and Yao D., “An Energy- Efficient Distributed Adaptive Cooperative Routing Based on Reinforcement Learning in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks,” Computer Networks, vol. 178 , 2020.

[20] Wu H., Cheng S., Peng Y., Long K., and Ma J., “IEEE 802.11 Distributed Coordination MCA-MAC: Modified Cooperative Access MAC Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks 335 Function(DCF): Analysis and enhancement,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications, New York, pp. 605-609, 2002, Aya Hossam received the B.S., M.S., Ph.D degree in electronics engineering from Benha University, Cairo, Egypt in 2012, 2015 and 2019 respectively. She is currently an Assistant Professor with the Electrical Engineering Department, electronics branch, Benha University, Cairo, Egypt. Her research interests include IoT, Signal processing, image processing, Acoustic devices, sensor networks and AI. She received the Best Student award from the President, the Best Student award from the Minister of High Education, and the Best Engineer award from President of Egyptian Engineers syndicate. Tarek Salem received his M.S. and Ph.D. in Systems and Computers Engineering from Al-Azhar University in 2012 and 2016, respectively. Since 2016, he is a researcher in Computers and Systems Department at the Electronics Research Institute (ERI) in Egypt. In addition, He is a Lecturer at Ahram Canadian University (ACU), faculty of computer science from 2018 till now. His research interests include internet of things, Mobile Computing, Cellular Networks, Sensor Networks, Cognitive Radio Networks, and Internet Services and Applications. Anar Abdel Hady is a Professional member of IEEE. She received her MSc degree from Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University in 2007. She received her PhD from Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University in 2014. She is currently a researcher in Electronics Research Institute (ERI), Egypt. She was a post doc scholar at Computer Science & Engineering at Washington University in St Louis, Missouri, USA in 2018-2019. Her research interests are wireless sensor networks, network security and Internet of Things. She is an author of many articles in reputable journals, conferences and book chapters. She was a Co-PI of an accomplished project for developing a prototype of a sensor network for precision agriculture. Sherine Abd El-Kader received the M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees from Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, in 1998 and 2003 respectively. She is vice president of ERI since 2019. She has been a Professor with the Computers and Systems Department, Electronics Research Institute (ERI), since April 2014. She is a member of the Technological Development and Linkage with Industry and Civil Society Committee, since 2016, and the Head of media committee, since 2017. She is the Head of the Computers and Systems Department, ERI, since 2018. She is also the Head of the Technology, Innovation and Commercialization Office (TICO), since 2018. She is working in many computer networking hot topics such as: the IoT, 5G, cognitive radio, Wi-MAX, Wi-Fi, IP mobility, QoS, wireless sensors Networks, ad-hoc networking, real time traffics, and localization algorithms.